Software Testing

What is Software Testing?

Software Testing is the process of double checking each and every module of software for correct functionality and performance. The Software testing phase is an essential step in the software development life cycle (SDLC) and without performing it, deployment cannot take place. Testing a software before deployment is a crucial step which shall not be missed to enhance user satisfaction and to advance the system of failure detection from a software. 

Software testing is basically done in a few steps and involves a set of activities to take place to identify potential failures and evaluate the quality’s level. Because ‘To err is human’, a human’s mistakes are carried forward which transform into defects which then subsequently turn into producing failures. Bugs and incorrect applications of functions are not-picked and then software is returned back to the development team for debugging (process of eliminating the bugs from the software). 

The activities performed in a software testing process are done so that the actual final product matches with the requirements elicited in the first phase of the SDLC. Any software product, be it a website, software application or a mobile application adhere to the same testing properties where each specific module is tested separately. It maps the user requirements with the actual implemented ones to make sure there are no gaps and missing requirements. There are multiple techniques to perform software testing; white box testing and black box testing. Mostly the testing activities are carried out module by module so that the recently implemented work can be tested before it merges with the rest of the work; to reduce the loss and cater maximum security.

software testing plan

Failure due to lack of software testing:  

Some of the companies follow the procedures where testing isn’t catered much as it is considered a total loss of cost and time. But here are some examples of how major companies had to roll themselves back due to the extent of loss only because of not carrying out testing procedures carefully. 

Example 1: The world’s largest coffee company experienced a failure in its POS software system due to which they had to shut down 60 stores in the U.S and Canada, even attempted to serve FREE coffee because they were not able to process any transactions.

Example 2: In April 1999, the costliest failure of time occurred with the military where they launched a military satellite which failed and made a total loss of $1.2 billion.

Benefits of Software Testing:

There are numerous pros of conducting a proper testing of softwares which can lead to these plus points:

  • Cost-Effective: The most crucial resource of any software is its cost; and if the bugs are found at an earlier stage, it results in a lower cost than if found near the software deployment.
  • Security: The data is the most expensive asset in today’s world and the clients pay gazillions for the sense of security in the Apps. Thus, proper integrity and security checks shall be run to enhance the trust of clients.
  • Product Quality: A product’s quality can never be determined unless properly run though. Thus, multiple quality checks are necessary to guarantee a product with the best quality.
  • Customer Satisfaction: To ensure maximum customer satisfaction is the goal of any company and why all above mentioned factors shall be followed. Because if you have gained a customer’s trust and satisfied him, he will be a long term client and provide maximum benefit.

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)

Just like the software development life cycle (SDLC), the testing phase consists of its very own life cycle known as STLC. These phases are:


  • Requirements analysis: This is the basic step where the requirements are analyzed and made sure to be tangible and implementable.
  • Test Planning: A proper planning is carried out to ensure that no steps are blocked and each step is fully completed before moving onto the next.
  • Test Case Development: Each individual possibility of functionality will be a separate test case and shall be given ID numbers for fast tracing.
  • Environment Setup: A proper environment shall be set up for each kind of testing to be properly performed, without any distractions.
  • Test Execution: The second last step in this life cycle focuses on execution of the fully implemented modules.
  • Test Cycle Closure. This step is more like, granting an A grade to a test case which guarantees that the test has passed.

software testing


There are various types of testing and basically these testing techniques move from 1-onwards as far as the order is concerned. 

  • Unit Testing: This is the first type of testing performed which is done on each individual component. The software product is divided into sub parts until it cannot be further divided. And that miniature part of the software is then tested to ensure little detailing done is error-free.
  • Integration Testing: The testing which is carried after unit testing is integration testing where those individual components are combined into modules. The goal of this testing is to determine the design and construction of the main software architecture. further the integration testing is divided into 2 parts:
  • Regression testing: Because integration means to add part by part to a whole working software which will result in a change. Regression testing makes sure the changes encountered due to the newly added part doesn’t affect any already properly working module. It can be conducted both manually and automatically using testing tools to automate the testing. 
  • Smoke testing: This type of testing is conducted when the whole software has completed development. Time critical projects are tested with smoke testing, on a frequent basis.
  • Validation Testing: The requirements established are mapped against the initially elicited ones in the preliminary requirements gathering phase. Any mismatches, gaps and missing requirements are fulfilled in this step. Mainly functional, performance and behavioral requirements are catered and tested here. Main components of validation testing are test plan and a test procedure.
  • System Testing: System testing performed right before the deployment phase is tested on the whole product ensuring working software as a whole which will satisfy the client’s expectations. A whole blend of units is testing along with an overall performance. Types of system testing are recovery testing, security testing, stress testing, performance testing and deployment testing.

Alpha vs. Beta Testing

  • Alpha Testing: Following the proper software testing life cycle (STLC), a process is carried BEFORE the release of the product in the market. Alpha testing supports the software product being tested, fixed and debugged before it reaches the actual market and is performed by an actual tester in a testing environment. An artificial environment has been created for the testing.
  • Beta testing: After deployment and releasing the product to the actual market, feedback is taken from the potential users of the product so that the bugs can be catered from the actual environment and actual user point of view. This testing is done casually, by a casual user. It is also known as customer acceptance testing.

These were some of the most important assets of software testing which shall not be skipped at any case. Proper testing documentation shall be carried out to ensure maximum customer satisfaction and a guaranteed overall profit.